l'arte di fondere i pensieri in piombo


Amici della Linotype

Andar per Linotype
Posta di Linotype & Linotipisti


Verso la composizione meccanica
Genesi della Linotype
La Linotype
Linotype in passerella
I meccanismi segreti


Linotype in England - L&M

Come si fabbricava una matrice

Il percorso della matrice

Traldi & Simoncini


In punta di penna

Musei della stampa con Linotype

Neram (Armidale, Australia)


Cent'anni di Linotype
Linotype in versi
Linotype in filatelia

Linotype in mezzo al mare

Fuoritesto, foto mai viste

Donne in tastiera

Linotipisti italiani
Diario di un linotipista

One last line of type

Scuola Grafica Salesiana

La Stampa (Torino)

Gazzetta del Popolo (Torino)
Secolo XIX (Genova)
Tribuna de Lavras (Brasile)

La Nación (Argentina)

El Clarín (Argentina)

The Modesto Bee (California)

Herald & Weekly Times (Australia)




The Linotype in England



Where Linotypes are made (Factory of Altrincham) (photo 1951)


Linotype House, 21 John Street - London, WC1


* * *

The Model Fifty Super Range

Mixer machine



Its main magazine equipment can comprise four extra-wide 72-channel magazines for the accomodation of large display upper-case and lower-case characters up to 36-point. When fewer than four extra-wide magazines are required, the balance of the equipment can be made uo of regular 90-channel magazines. The operator is able to set, at full keyboard speed, large display matter as well as regular text faces. This model can be supplied with or without a side magazine section.


A mixer Linotype—what does it do—how does it do it when is it needed and where is it best employed?

Very simply a mixer machine is one which assembles and distri­butes matrices from any two adjacent main magazines. It will also mix from the first and second and the third and fourth magazines of a side section.

This is made possible by the finger-operated oscillating assembler entrance which flicks from one magazine to another in a fraction of a second. This, together with the automatic double distributor, ensures double-choice composition at standard speed.

Mixed composition is being used with increasing frequency: the ability to have roman, bold, italic, and small caps available for catalogues, dictionaries, and similar jobs has proved invaluable to many Linotype users.

Model 50 stands for variety, versatility, and production.


Model 50 S.M. (Side Magazines). This is a "mixer" machine, which means that composition of several type faces (such as roman, italic, and display founts) can be mixed in one line direct from the keyboard. So rapidly are fount changes effected (over seventy a minute) that matrices from the fuour magazines in use can be set at the same high speed as regular straightforward matter. This machine without the side section is known as Model 50.



Model 48 S.M. (Side Magazines - in photograph). It is equipped with four main and four side magazines; but it is also built four main magazines only, when it is known as Model 48 (in photograph). Like all modern Linotypes, it is equipped with quick-change "floating" magazines, swinging keyboards, optic-aid front, etc., planned to assist the operator in maintining a consistently good output of ready-for-use type matter for book, newspaper, periodical, and jobbing work needing frequent face and measure changes.


* * *


A Handbook for the guidance

and instruction of Linotype operators

Price 17s. 6d. post free

Published 1951 by Linotype and Machinery Limited

Linotype House, 21 John Street - London, WC1


* * *


 THIS HANDBOOK has been compiled and illustrated primarily by the guidance of those Linotype Operators who are planning to migrate from early to modem Linotypes, or are already in charge of those machines. Up-to-date Linotypes are known as Model 48, Model 48 S.M., Model 50, and Model 50 S.M. The first two of these are single-distributor machines; the other two are double-distributor models—sometimes referred to as “Mixers.”

 The double-distributor models are also made as Super-Range Linotypes, arranged and equipped by the direct keyboard composition of extra large display faces only, or for the setting of mixed text and large display type matter.

 The newcomer to mechanical composition will also find the handbook of value to him in his studies, for the general principles of the modem Linotype are, broadly speaking, similar to the earlier models, although in detail the mechanism necessarily varies substantially in accordance with the Linotype’s ever-expanding progress to suit modem conditions and broader fields.

 New students of the Linotype are advised to study the contents of this hand­book in the order in which it appears. In that way they will more readily learn how type lines are produced and the care and adjustment of the various mechanisms concerned—from keyboard operation, matrix assembling, line casting, and so on, to the ejection of the completed slug line and the distribution of the matrices.

 The correct names of the many parts comprising a Linotype are used throughout this handbook, but when ordering parts for replacement, etc. the instructions given in the “Catalogue of Linotype Parts” supplied with the machine should be closely followed. Particularly is it important to quote not only the name of the part, but also its reference number; the model number of the machine for which the part is required, and the serial number of the machine.

 The author of this new handbook, Mr. R. H. Scott (Head of Linotype’s Research and Technical Improvements Department), has planned the volume in a way that should facilitate the studies of every machine compositor who wishes to extend his knowledge of the Linotype beyond keyboard operating. He was further inspired by the thought that some of the information contained in this book would be helpful to those installation mechanics who, owing to circumstances beyond their control, have been unable to take refresher courses on the latest developments in Linotype construction.

                                                                                 W. M. B.

 * * *

 Mechanism and operation

of modern Linotypes



 THE INVENTION OF THE LINOTYPE composing machine has justly been called the second greatest event in the history of printing. The first event was the invention of movable types about 1450; the second event was in 1886.

The need for some way of setting type by mechanical means had exercised the inventive minds of the nineteenth century, and although the Linotype of 1886 was commercially practicable, it did not meet all the demands of the printer nor satisfy the inventors, despite the fact they had already suffered ten years of disheartening failure. This original machine contained many mechanisms which are still part of the modem Linotype.

It is not commonly known that the initial effort which in due course led up to the invention of the Linotype as we know it to-day was an inspiration which occurred to five shorthand writers in 1876, as a result of a conversation between them in the intervals of their verbatim reporting. At that time, however, they had no idea of producing a type-composing machine, but the production of a machine operated by a keyboard to indent steel characters on papier-mâche, which papier-mâche in strip form was crimped so as to readjust the words for line spacing. These strips in due course were pasted into column form and ultimately into page form, and from this complete paste-up stereotypes were cast. This method failed, as did many other developments which followed it. In due course a stage was reached where strip brass matrices, each bearing a number of characters, were arranged side by side, from which slugs were cast. Ultimately the matrix characters were separated and stored in a magazine, and thereafter the machine gradually assumed shape more or less as we now know it.

Although this particular portion of the story of the Linotype is so briefly told, it occupied many clever men a considerable number of years, backed by a vast amount of capital, to reach that stage where the machine could be looked upon as a practical tool for printers. That story, interesting though it may be, is far too long to detail here.

The Linotype is not a type-setting machine in the usual sense of the word; it does not compose or arrange types, but produces lines of metal, known as slugs, which can be used for direct printing, or, as in newspaper work, for making papier-mâche matrices from which stereotype plates are produced.


* * *

Fig. 1.-As detailed below, this picture illustrates the path of the matrices as they circulate through the machine, from their release from the magazine by means of the keyboard to their return to the magazine ready for use again.

1   Matrices leaving the magazine in the order determined by the operator, ha ving been released by the depression of key buttons.

2   Matrice and spacebands in process of assembling in line formation.

3   Completely assembled matrices being transferred to the first elevator, after being release from the assembler by the operator (who now proceeds to set the line to follow).

4   Matrix line in front of the mould for justification and casting.

5   The matrix line after casting being carried upward for its transfer to the second elevator.

6   The matrix line is transferred to the second elevator ready for rising to the distributor mechanism. At this point the spacebands are separated from the matrix line and transferred to the spaceband box ready for use again.

7   The matrix line (now free from spacebands) being lifted to the level of the distributor bar suspended over the magazine.

8   Matrices being separated into single units again so as to be engaged by rotating screws, which propel them along the distributor bar.

9   Matrices passing along the distributor bar until released by their combination of teeth, which causes them to fall into their original channels ready fro re-assembling into new matrix lines.

* * *

 Each of these lines of metal or slugs is the length and width of a line of type (Fig. 6), and has on its upper edge the necessary type characters to print an entire line. Several lines of slugs produce the same appearance as lines of type which are composed of single types and serve exactly the same purpose. After use, these slugs are melted down and used for recasting into other slugs. The practice of returning every single type character and space to its particular box, as with hand-set types, is thus entirely eliminated.

The dominant feature of the Linotype is the individual freely circulating matrix. A matrix (Fig. 2) consists of a flat plate which has on its vertical edge a die or dies of a character, and has in its upper portion a series of teeth which are used for selecting and carrying it to its proper place in the magazine or container. This container has a series of grooves or channels along which the matrices slide on their edges and from its lower end they drop one by one when released by the depression of a key button.


Fig. 2.-A double-letter matrix. The reference symbol stamped on the side of the matrix denotes that the characters it bears form part of a fount of 14-point Cheltenham duplexed with Italic.

A keyboard is used for assembling these various ma­trices in the order required  for making words. When the operator depresses a key, it releases a matrix from the container or magazine above. The matrix falls down on to a constantly revolving belt into a box, which represents the stick of the hand com­positor. After each word, a spaceband (Fig. 3) is inserted by depressing a key. When the matrices and spacebands have been assembled to fill a line, the operator raises the whole line by depressing a handle on the right. Thereafter the entire operation of casting the line and returning the ma­trices to their original places is effected mechanically, and the operator can therefore begin to assemble the next line.


Fig. 3.-Flat and edge views of a Linotype spaceband. It consists of two tapered steel pieces, so arranged that the outer edges are always parallel.

The line is transferred to the front of the mould, which is slotted from the front to the rear and is of a size determined by the body and length of slug to be cast. While the line of matrices and spacebands is in front of the mould, the space­bands, which are double wedge-shaped, are spread upwards until the line is spaced out to the required measure (Fig. 4).


Fig. 4.-An assembled line of matrices and spacebands, justified and ready for casting. Note how the worlds in italic are aligned with those in roman.

At this moment the slot in the mould and the dies of the row of matrices are filled with molten metal to produce a slug. The metal is contained in the pot behind the mould wheel, and is kept in a molten state by a bunsen gas flame or by electrically heated elements. The molten metal is forced into the mould and matrices by a plunger, which pumps the metal up the delivery throat into the mould where it solidifies and forms a slug (Fig. 5).


Fig. 5.-This is a sectional view of the metal pot, mould wheel, mould, and matrix line, showing how the molden type metal is forced up the throat of the pot into the mould and dies of the matrices.

After casting, the mould wheel containing the slug revolves and brings the slug into a vertical position, where it is pushed by an ejector through two parallel trimming knives into a tray or galley. At the back of the mould wheel is a knife which trims the bottom of the slug.

While the slug is being trimmed and ejected, the matrices and spacebands, having finished their work, are returned to their original places ready for use again. The matrices are first lifted vertically to an intermediate channel, thence they move laterally to the right until their teeth engage in the ribs of the bar which has descended to receive them. This bar then rises and lifts the whole line of matrices to the distributor mechanism at the top of the magazine. In the mean­time the spacebands, which have remained behind (because they have no teeth to engage in the bar), are transferred by a grabber to their original position in a box for use again.


Fig. 6.-A typical composite line of type cast on the Linotype. Larger slugs are heavily recessed so as to conserve metal.

The method by which each matrix is returned to its proper channel in the magazine is as follows: Each matrix has a number of teeth in the V formed by its top portion. These teeth are not the same in every matrix, but are arranged in a particular order or combination, according to the characters they bear. Every character differs in its combination from other matrices bearing different charac­ters, and the teeth play an impor­tant part in effecting the return of the matrices to their respective places. A rigid notched bar is fixed in position above the open ends of the magazine mouth, and is made so as to engage the teeth and hold them in suspension. The ribs of the bar vary in number and con­tinuance along its length. The matrices are pushed on the bar at one end and carried along it over the mouths of the channels. Each matrix is engaged by its teeth on the bar until it arrives over its proper channel, where the com­binations of teeth allow the matrix to disengage so that it falls into its own channel. The matrices are carried along the bar by means of longitudinal screws, which lie below the bar in such a position as to engage the edges or lugs of  the matrices and carry them along  the bar (Fig. 7).


Fig. 7.-A portion of the matrix distributor. This illustration shows matrices travelling along the ribbed distributor bar until released over their channels in the magazine. It will be noticed that certain parts of the ribs on the bar are cut away, and that some of the seven pairs. In that way the matrices remain yeyed to the bar until they are noi longer supported by the ribs and gravitate down their channels.

It is this system of the circulation of the matrices (Fig. 1) and the fact that the operations of assembling them in one line, casting them in another, and carrying them back to the magazine are concurrently effected without inter­ference, that enables the machine to be operated at a speed far beyond that hitherto attainable in type composition. Here are a few general principles used in the Linotype machine that should be mentioned in this introductory chapter. The Linotype is an automatic power-driven machine. With the exception of the depression of the keys on the keyboard and the starting of the assembled line to the casting mechanism, all the functions of the machine are performed automatically. The various motions in proper sequence required for the justification of the line of matrices, the casting of the slug, and the distribution of the matrices to the magazines are effected by the action of cams. Most of these cams are mounted on a single main cam shaft, and all the functions above mentioned are performed in one revolution of this cam shaft.

In the second place, with the exception of the keyboard cams and a few others, all the cams on the machine are large, and the motions of the machine are made as slow as possible. The regular casting speed of the Linotype is between six and seven lines per minute; but some machines are geared to run at eight or more lines per minute, as, for example, those equipped with Teletypesetter apparatus.

This comparatively slow speed of the main working parts is very important in avoiding undue wear on the machine. Many Linotypes have been in constant use for over forty years, and some of these machines are still in use.

The third principle is the use of springs to cause the positive motion of the parts, the cams returning the moving parts to their original position. This principle makes it possible to use what are called “automatics,” which are devices arranged so that if anything should go wrong the machine will stop or the spring will expand without breaking any of the parts to which it is attached. This principle is used throughout the machine wherever possible.

The mechanism of the Linotype machine may be divided into three general divisions. First is the assembling of the matrices and spacebands, which is started by the operator’s manipulation of the keyboard. Beginning with the depression of a key button, the action of the keyboard cam moves the keyboard rod con­nected with the escapement in the magazine, and a matrix is released and falls by gravity upon a constantly running belt which delivers the matrix into the assembler.

The second great division of the Linotype machine is the casting mechanism (see Fig. 5). This part of the Linotype mechanism includes means for justifying the line of matrices by means of double wedges called spacebands; for bringing the mould against the justified line; bringing a crucible, or pot, of molten metal, having a suitable mouthpiece, against the mould; pressing the mouthpiece against the mould and the mould firmly against the line of matrices in order to make a tight joint; a pumping mechanism for delivering the molten metal into the mould and against the matrices; a mechanism for returning the crucible to its original position, and for withdrawing the mould from the line of matrices, revolving the mould, during which action a knife trims the bottom of the slug and finally brings it opposite a pair of knives; means for ejecting the slug from the mould, passing it through the knives by which the body of the slug is trimmed, and depositing the slug on a galley.

The third division of the Linotype mechanism comprises means for unlocking the line of matrices and spacebands, passing the line to an intermediate channel in which the line of matrices is separated from the spacebands, depositing the spacebands into their box, transferring the line of matrices to the upper part of the machine, and passing the line of matrices along a mechanism called the distributor bar (see Fig. 7), which distinguishes the different characters and allows them to fall by gravity at their proper places into the upper end of the magazine; from the lower end of which the matrices are released by the escapement.

As is well known, the original Linotype machine has been steadily developed since it was first introduced, and a large number of changes and additions have been made to it, to meet the demands of the printer which economic con­ditions constantly bring about. There are, basically, but two models of the Linotype, the single distributor and the multiple distributor machine (known to-day as Models 48 and 50), each adapted to specific requirements of the print­ing business. In the figures and explanations given in the following sections of this book, all the different styles of mechanism used are illustrated and explained.

The reader will find a number of repetitions throughout these pages. That is intentional. Some of the parts in the Linotype machine perform more than one function, and it is often necessary in describing one of these functions to repeat the description with reference to another. There are also certain direc­tions and warnings to the operator so important that they cannot be repeated too often.

In order that the reader may not have to refer, so far as this book is con­cerned, to the Illustrated Catalogue of Parts and Supplies (which accompanies the machine as part of its equipment), part reference numbers are omitted. The various parts are described by their regular names, so as to make this book complete in itself.

It is important, however, that the recognised part numbers as given in the catalogue above mentioned should always be quoted when ordering spares and replacements. Besides specifying the “K” or section number, the style or model and the serial number of the machine for which it is required should be given.

When ordering matrices, the regular printed matrix order forms (which are supplied free) should be used. Thereon should be given the fount and reference symbol (see Fig. 2) of the face required. If odd sorts only are ordered, the form should clearly set out if such sorts are to run into the magazine, into the front pie bowl, or into the sorts stacker. When in doubt as to the face in use, a lower-case “p” should be sent with the order for additional sorts matrices.


Idea, grafica e realizzazione di:

Giorgio Coraglia








L&M NEWS 1961

vol. 24 no. 4


The whole of this journal is set on the Linotype and printed from the slugs on letterpress machines manufactured by Linotype & Machinery Limited, by whom it is printed and published at Linotype House, 21 John Street, London WC1 (by L&M NEWS, vol. 24 no. 4, September-October 1961)



End of the Road


Almost the last job that Mr Jack Wilson did before leaving the "West London Observer" was to set these display headings for the new "Show Pistorial". War, rain, house-moving and even a broken leg had not been able to stop him coming in to work but, after 50 years of it, Mr Wilson decided it was time for him to retire. He had been with the "Observer" since 1912 after training as a Linotype operator in his native Wakefield and was for some time in charge of the paper's extensive Linotype battery. As material proof of the firm's appreciation for his years of service, Mr Eric Carter, Editor and Managing Director, presented him a wallet of Premium Bonds. He himself asked that his thanks to both his firm and L&M should go on record for all the encouragement that they had given him in his work.


Mr Carter presents Mr Wilson with a £500 cheque


Roy Bate, senior apprentice with the "Birmingham Post and Mail", shows the Duke of Edimburgh how quick it is to set copy on a Linotype

Originally installed in Birmingham more than 25 years ago, this Model 4 Linotype took a holiday from its normal day-and-night stint to form the centrepiece of the paper's exhibition stand. (Photos by courtesy of the "Birmingham Post and Mail")

Youth at the helm-or rather, the keyboard. Anyone with a mechanically-minded son was invited to bring him along and one of the boys tried his hand at a Linotype

The Model 79 and Teletypesetting equipment in the Linotype showroom in London have been much in demand recently. A series of demonstrations of the equipment has been given Mr L. Vallerine, who is seen here (second from left) with an engineer from the London "Evening News" (left) and two operators from the "Falkirk Herald". In the foreground is the TTS operating unit



* * *


Sequence of Machine Actions


(by "Mechanism and operation of modern Linotypes". Published by Linotype and Machinery Limited, Linotype House, 21 John Street, London, WC1)


It will be helpful at this point to summarize, in their correct sequence, all the automatic actions imparted by the main cams after the line of matrices and spacebands has been delivered to the first elevator carriage. While the actions of the individual cams have already been outlined it is now necessary to cor­relate the actions of all the cams in order to present a composite picture of the machine’s operation during one complete revolution of the cam shaft.

Preceding the automatic cam actions numbered below, the starting point in the operation of the machine is the assembling of the line of matrices and spacebands by the operator. As the operator depresses the key buttons of the keyboard the required matrices are released from the magazine and are carried in their correct order to the assembler elevator. When the length of the assembled line is correct the operator raises the assembly elevator to the delivery slide. The slide carries the line through the delivery channel to the first elevator carriage and then returns to its normal position ready to receive the next assembled line. In the meantime the operator has started to set the next line while the line just delivered to the first elevator carriage is handled automatically from this point on, as described below.

 1.—The first elevator long slide descends with the line of matrices and spacebands in the first elevator carriage. The line is lowered between the vice jaws and comes to rest in a position directly in front of the mould.

2.—While the first elevator long slide is descending with the line the mould wheel is turned one-quarter of a revolution, bringing the mould in use to a horizontal position in front of the matrix line.

3.—The mould slide moves the mould wheel forward until the face of the mould is within .010” of the matrices.

4.—The vice closing lever rises, closing the left-hand vice jaw to the correct length of line.

5.—The justification lever rises, lifting the justification head in an inclined position. The spacebands are pushed upwards by the justification head, spread­ing the line of matrices out against both vice jaws. This action is referred to as the first justification.

6.—The justification lever descends, relieving the upward pressure of the justification head from the spacebands.

7.—The vice closing lever descends, permitting the left-hand vice jaw to withdraw slightly from the matrix line.

8.—The first elevator slide rises, lifting the lower lugs of the matrices against the aligning grooves in the mould, and thereby aligning the matrices vertically with respect to the mould.

9.—The metal pot advances and moves the mould against the matrices, pressing the matrices against the first elevator carriage hardened plate. This action aligns the matrices face-wise in relation to the mould.

10.—The metal pot withdraws from the mould to provide freedom for the second justification.

11.—The vice closing lever rises, closing the left-hand vice jaw to the correct length of line being cast.

12.—The vice closing lever continues to move upwards, causing the justifi­cation head to be raised to a horizontal position; then the justification lever and the vice closing lever rise together, lifting the justification head on a horizontal plane, and pushing the spacebands upward until the line of matrices is spread out tightly between the vice jaws. This final justification is referred to as the second justification.

13.—The metal pot advances and locks tightly against the back of the mould, pressing the face of the mould against the previously aligned and justified line of matrices and spacebands. This action is normally referred to as the “lock-up.”

14.—The metal pot plunger descends in the well of the pot crucible, forcing a stream of molten type metal upward through the throat of the crucible, through the mouthpiece holes, into the mould, against the characters punched in the matrices. The molten type metal solidifies instantly in the mould, forming the slug with a line of raised type characters reproduced from the punched characters of the matrices.

15.—The pot pump lever is lifted in preparation for the withdrawal of the metal pot.

i 6.—The upward pressure with which the first elevator slide aligned the matrices vertically is now released, as the first elevator justification tube spring is permitted to open slightly. This action relieves the upward pressure of the matrix lugs from the aligning grooves in the mould.

17.—The justification lever and the vice closing lever descend, lowering the justification head and relieving the upward pressure on the spacebands.

18.—The metal pot withdraws from the mould; then the mould slide moves the mould back from the matrix line, withdrawing the face of the slug out of the punched characters of the matrices.

19.—The mould slide stops when the mould wheel locking studs are clear of the mould wheel locking stud blocks, and the pot continues to move back until it reaches its normal position.

20.—The mould wheel is turned three-quarters of a revolution, carrying the slug in the mould to a vertical position in front of the left- and right-hand slug knives, ready for ejection. While the mould is being turned to the ejecting position the base of the slug is trimmed by the back knife.

21 .—During the preceding action the first elevator long slide raises the line of matrices and spacebands to the transfer position, while the second elevator lever descends and seats the second elevator bar correctly in the space­band intermediate channel.

22.—The long and short spaceband levers move together to transfer the line. The short spaceband lever moves the line of matrices and spacebands out of the first elevator carriage into the spaceband intermediate channel. The teeth of the matrices engage with the teeth of the second elevator bar, and the spaceband tops enter the groove in the spaceband intermediate channel front plate.

23.—The long and short spaceband levers move away from one another, and the second elevator bar lifts the matrices out of the spaceband inter­mediate channel. The matrices are supported by their teeth on the second elevator bar while being lifted to the distributor. As soon as the matrices are clear of the spaceband intermediate channel the long and short spaceband levers move together again. The elevator transfer slide finger pushes the space­bands under the spaceband grabber, and when the levers return to their normal position the spaceband grabber draws the spacebands to the right, through the spaceband intermediate channel, to the spaceband box, where they slide down into position for use in subsequent lines. It should be noted that this last action relating to the return of spacebands occurs during and after the ejection of the slug.

 24.—During the preceding action the mould slide moves the mould wheel forward until the mould wheel locking studs enter the locking stud blocks on the vice casting. This action locates the slug in the mould in its correct position with respect to the left- and right-hand slug knives. The ejector cam piece moves the ejector lever forward, causing the ejector blade to push the slug out of the mould and between the two slug knives. The slug is trimmed to its correct body size, and is moved forward by the ejector blade, through the galley chute, and it slides down on to the galley in correct sequence with the slugs ejected previously.

 25.—While the slug is being ejected and trimmed, the first elevator long slide and the second elevator lever are returned to their normal positions. The first elevator long slide descends from the spaceband intermediate channel and comes to rest when the first elevator carriage is in alignment with the delivery channel. The second elevator lever continues to raise the lime of matrices to the distributor. As the second elevator approaches its normal position at the distributor the distributor shifter moves out of the distributor box until it is clear of the second elevator bar. As soon as the bar is correctly seated the distributor shifter moves over to the right and pushes the matrices into the distributor box.

 26.—While the matrices are being moved into the distributor box the eject­ing mechanism is returned to its normal position by the ejector lever, and the mould slide withdraws the mould wheel also to its normal position.

 27.—The final automatic process of the machine—the distribution of matrices lo their respective magazine channels—is now carried out by the matrix lift and distributor mechanism. Each matrix is lifted into the distributor screws and engages the teeth of the distributor bar. The matrices are moved along the bar, supported by their teeth, until they reach the points on the bar directly above their respective channels in the magazine channel entrance. As each matrix reaches its releasing point there is a gap in the teeth of the distri­butor bar opposite each of the supporting teeth of the matrix. The matrix is thereby released and drops off the distributor bar into the magazine channel entrance, from which point the matrix is guided into its channel in the magazine.

 The foregoing outline represents the complete sequence of actions imparted by the cams during one complete revolution of the assembled cam shaft. It should be noted that if a lime of matrices and spacebands is raised to the delivery slide before the cams have completed their revolution, the delivery cam will hold the lime in the delivery channel until the cams reach the normal position. The lime, commonly referred to as a “waiting” lime, will then be delivered to the first elevator carriage and will be cast and distributed exactly as outlined in the list of machine actions.


* * *

This is where your paper begins. Operators at work on what Thomas Edison referred to as the "Eighth wonder of the world-Linotypes."